The Rand Protectorate, also known as simply Rand and briefly renamed Avidan, is one of the two nations on the planet Tegalus, the other being the Caledonian Federation. They have been in a state of cold war for several decades as each nation has many weapons and could easily both destroy the other.
After SG-1 arrived on the planet a religious leader named Soren started to cause unrest claiming that the Stargate's activation proved his belief that the gods would return. Due to this unrest a missile was eventually launched causing great damage to the protectorate. Each of the warring factions were greatly damaged by the war but many people escaped the blast zones. Later the Protectorate with help from Stargate Command began to rebuild the society. (SG1: "Icon")
Around a half a year after this happened, a Prior of the Ori visited the planet meeting the Protectorate as they were the ones who had the Stargate. The prior gave them instructions of how to build a satellite weapon, but only in stages. The Rand built the weapon from the instructions, under the watch of the prior. Later SG-1 and the Prometheus attempted to destroy the satellite but failed, resulting in the destruction of the Prometheus and also the death of Colonel Lionel Pendergast and more than 39 of its 115-plus officers and crew. When Lt. Colonel Cameron Mitchell and Teal'c were about to destroy the satellite via a F-302 fighter-interceptor while the Rand's power was down Dr. Daniel Jackson brokered a deal between the two nations. Rand would give the Caledonians the Stargate and allow those to leave who do not want to convert to Origin.
The deal was accepted, however, President Nadal attempted to break it and use the satellite to attack the capital of Caledonia but was killed by Commander Goran Pernaux and the satellite was shut down. Daniel later revealed that the treaty broke down and the Caledonians launched an attack on the Protectorate, resulting in a counterattack. The Stargate is presumed buried under the resulting rubble of this counterattack with the SGC learning of this development after Landry had the Daedalus re-route while the ship itself was on its way back from Atlantis. (SG1: "Ethon")