A Court-martial is a military court. These military courts can determine punishments for members of the military subject to military law who are found guilty of a crime or may dismiss the charges based on the evidence and the case presented. If found guilty a person can get off with a simple discharge or face time in a military prison. The correct plural is "courts-martial".

In 1998, Major Louis Ferretti was sent after SG-1, who went to the Stargate coordinates they obtained from an Alternate reality, to bring them back for a court-martial. (SG1: "Within the Serpent's Grasp")

When SG-1 traveled back in time to 1969, Colonel Jack O'Neill shot Lt. George S. Hammond with a Zat'nik'tel in order to save him from a court-martial. (SG1: "1969")

In 2008, when Lt. Colonel John Sheppard led a rescue mission to Michael's cruiser to save Teyla Emmagan against orders. Before that, he told Colonel Samantha Carter she could court-martial him if he survived. (SGA: "Search and Rescue")

In 2009, MSgt. Ronald Greer was in the brig awaiting a court-martial for striking Colonel David Telford when Icarus Base was attacked by the Lucian Alliance. (SGU: "Air, Part 2")

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