An archaeologist is a scientist who studies the material remains of past civilizations, often through excavation of sites, analysis of materials, and research of recorded historical records with the most notable archaeologist being Dr. Daniel Jackson, a member of SG-1.

Traditionally, modern American archaeologists are initially trained in the four-field approach of anthropology—cultural anthropology, physical anthropology, linguistics, archaeology—and later specialize in one of the four fields. This generalist approach makes anthropologists and archaeologists particularly prepared for studying other cultures by making them attuned to the processes by which populations live, communicate, and evolve.

The English approach to learning archaeology and related disciplines is a more regionally focused approach producing specialists like Egyptologists who have great depth in a limited region.

Most research is conducted by interdisciplinary teams led by archaeologists and anthropologists with graduate research experience—typically one or more with Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degree—as primary investigators. In addition to the primary investigator, research assistants—typically undergraduate or graduate students or those with a bachelor's degree—provide additional manpower for digs or cultural research.

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